7 Note-Making and Summarising
Steps to Prepare Notes
1. Read the passage carefully. गद्यांश को सावधानी से पढ़ें
2 Note the main points. मुख्य बिन्दु लिखें।
3. Note the facts and figures, if any, qui aferdi
4 Write arrealing and important sentences. दिल को छूने वाले व महत्वपूर्ण वाक्य लिखें।
S Wite beautiful and impressive quotations, अच्छे उद्धरण लिखें।
6. Givea suitable Title, एक उचित शीर्षक भी दें।
I. The summary should be short, clear and exact. (सारांश संक्षिप्त, स्पष्ट व सही हो।)
2. The summary should be complete and self-contained. (HRIST qua eft
3. It must be a true, faithful picture of the ideas contained in the original passage.
(गद्यांश में वर्णित विचार प्रतिबिंबित हों।)
In India, working women lead a life of dual responsibilities, if they are married and have a family. There are four categories of working women in India. Some work while they are waiting for matrimony. A majority work because they are qualified, want a second income and different kind of life for a part of the day. A small section consists of career women. A sizeable section of women are bread winners. It is quite apparent that a majority of working women prefer to stay in joint-families, where their children can be taken care of while they are at work.
Difficult words-1.दोहरा, 2. विवाह संस्कार, 3. लक्ष्य।
(A) Notes 1. Women fulfil dual responsibilities if married and have a family
2. Four categories of working women
(i) Waiting for matrimony.
(ii) Qualified women. Second income and different life for a part of
(iii) Career women.
(iv) Bread winners.
3. Majority of working women stay in joint families.
(B) Summary _Married working women have dual responsibilities. There kinds of working women waiting for matrimony, qualified career women and winners A majority of working women prefer to stay in joint families
Title Responsibilities of Working Women
of all amusements which can possibly be imagined for a hard-working me after his daily tell there is nothing like reading an entertaining book. It calls no Bodily exertion of which he has had enough. It relieves his home of its duullines. It transport to a lively and more interesting scene, and while he enjoys himself there, he may for the evils of the present moment. Nay, it accompanies him to his day’s next work, and the book he has been reading be anything above the very idlest and ligforest, it gives me something to think of, besides the drudgery of his everyday occupation
Difficult words-1. मनोरंजन,2. श्रम, 3. कठोर तनाव, 4. सजीव, 5. गुलामी, कठोर श्रम।
(A) Notes–1. Reading an interesting book, the best entertainment.
2. No bodily exercise needed.
3. Transports a man to a lively and interesting scene
4. Helps in forgetting evil moments.
5. Gives thinking power.
(B) Summary-Reading a book is the best entertainment after the day’s hard wont
It requires no physical labour, removes dullness and makes the reader forget the wories
the present. It even provides him with interesting subjects to think about
Title Pleasures of Reading
Success in your life depends largely on good health. Keep your body fit by cleanliness
fresh air, regular habits and suitable recreations, make yourself strong to play the gameand do it in every sense of the word. Avoid anything that will sap- your strength. Smokingin your youth stunts the body and clouds the brain. Be temperater in all things andbeware of drink. It is the deadly enemy of health and efficiency. Above all, remembe
that your character is a priceless possession. Therefore, keep it untarnished. Be Truth
in all things, courteous and considerate to everybody, fair to your rivals kind and
helpful to all who are weak and suffering, and do not be afraid to have the courage to stand
up for what is good, pure and noble. Avoid gambling in any form, it is a mean game trying
to get something for nothing at other people’s expense.Make provision for hard times. In your leisure hours, avoid merel idling, File
hours with interesting hobbies, good books and with companionships and associations
calculated 4 to exercise over you an influence for good. To a large extent you will be
known by the company you keep.
Difficult words-1. उचित मनोरंजन, 2. नष्ट करना, 3.बढ़ने न देना. 4. संयनी, कार्यक्षमता.
5. अमूल्य सम्पत्ति, 7. निर्मल, निष्कलंक, 8. विनम्र, 9. विचारवान, दूरदर्शी, 10. विरोधी, रा. वानगी
2. केवल, 13. सभा, 14. विचार रखते हुए।
1. Good health is essential for success in life.
2. One should avoid everything which affects health and ethiciem
3. One should be truthful, humble, considerate, fair, kind and operative
4 One should have upright character and mon courage
5. One should cultivate some interesting hobbies to filone’s vacant
6 One should see the company of good people
(B) Semmary Good health is essential for success in life. A man should keep
body fit and avoid everything which has a bad effect on health and efficiency. He
Title Secrets of Success
lecare time. Above all, he should seek the company of good people.
In small primitive societies, nobody needed money because everybody worked wgether and shared things, but in bigger societies people specialise For example, one messen spends all his time making pots and another person spends all his time in fishing The fisherman needs pots and the potter needs fish, so they exchange these things. This is
alled “barter system. However, this system can become very complicated For instance,
the poster wants ten fish and the fisherman wants only one pot. For this reason, people began puse money. They agreed to take a valuable object, such as a shell, a stone or a metal in exchange for what they are selling. They could collect the objects and wait until they found mething they really want to buy. Gold and silver were often used as money because they can be divided into very small quantities and they are not damaged by water or air. Gold is especially valuable because there is not very much of it in the world and it is expensive to take it out of the ground where it is mixed with rock.
(A) Notes-1. In small primitive societies—things were shared.
2. In bigger societies specialisation.
2.1. Exchange of things called Barter system.
2.2. It is complicated.
2.3. Use of money started.
(1) Shell, stone and metal used
(ii) Gold and silver often used.
(B) Summary-In small primitive societies, money was not needed, but in biggersocieties, people specialise. So, barter system came into existence. But it was veryco mplicated. So, money in the form of shells, stone and metal became the medium ofexchange. Gold and silver were easy medium as they could be divided into small pieces. Title-How Money Came into Existence ?
This is the age of machines. Machines are everywhere in the fields, in the factories,in the home, on the streets, in the city, in the country, everywhere. To fly, it is not necessary to have wings there are machines. To swim under the sea, it is not necessary to have gills, there are machines. To kill our people in overwhelming number, there are machines. Petrol machines alone provide ten times more power than all human beings in the world. la the busiest countries, each individual has six hundred human slaves in his machines. And it is not the machine age that gives us year by year more hours of leisure”, rather * fails to teach us how to use them, gives us mechanical habits of mind and represses be spirit of adventure
Difficult words-1. अत्यधिक, 2. फुरसत, 3. यान्त्रिक, 4. दबाना।
(Age of Machines
a) sed everywhere
O fitnes, home, streets
(10 for ng for swimming
ut to kill our fellow men
2. Petrol machines are ten times more powerful
In the busiest countries, machines work as slaves.
4. Machines give us
much leisure but does not teach
how to use it
(B) Summary – This is the age of machines. Machines are everywhere. They are ne powerful to busiest countries they work as slaves. They give us much leisure but fail to us is yer use tide Age of Machines
his much better to give hope and strength than money. The best help is not bear the troubles of others for them but to inspire’ them with courage and energy, to bear their Nursion for themselves and meet the difficulties of life bravely. So we must be careful to destroy independence in our anxiety to relieve distress. There is always the danger lest whatever is done the men should make them more dependent instead of more independent. It is therefore, not so much to give a man bread, as to put him in the way of earning it for himself, not to give direct aid, but to help others to help themselves.
Dificult words-1 प्रेरणा देना, 2. नष्ट करना, 3 चिंता, 4. विपत्ति, 5. अन्यथा।
(A) Notes-1. Giving hope and strength : much better than giving money.
2. Inspire others with courage and energy, to bear their burden for
3. Be careful to make others independent rather than dependent.
4. It is better to put others on the road of earning bread for themselves
than to give them bread.
(B) Summary -Giving hope and strength to others is much better than giving them
money. The best help is to inspire others to bear burden for themselves. We must not destroy independence of others. It is more important, therefore, not so much to give a man bread,as to put him in the way of earning it for himself, not to give direct aid, but to help others
to help themselves.Title Help Others to Help Themselves
How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world: there are high quality programmes that help us to understand many fields of study, science, medicine, the arts and so on. More over, television benefits very old people, who can’t often leave the house as well as patients in the hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily informal language, practice. They can increase their vocabulary and practise listening
Dimcult words-1. जो किसी स्थान का मूल निवासी न हो, 2. अनौपचारिक।
1. Advantages of Television
() increases knowledge
6) helps us to understand this often met
(1) helps the old patients in hospitals
(non-natives get language the
() good way to relax, prend free time
(B) Sammary-Television is very useful for us increases wege is useful for the old and the patients. Non-natives get language practice. It is alway to relax Title Advantages of Television
The need for money originates from the fact that different people in swiety of
different things. This means that they depend on each other for goods and services. Let us
take the case of a farmer who produces more food than the requires and a carpenter who
lives by selling tables and chairs he has made. It will be obvious that unless some means
of exchange will be for them to use, the farmer will not be able to get rid of his surplus
food and carpenter will stane Clearly the simplest means of exchange will be for them
to use barter, in other words, to exchange a certain amount of goods (farmer grain) Ro
a certain amount of another (carpenter’s table or chair) Obviously harter can work only
in a very simple society. In an advanced society, we cannot go around for the things we
Difficult words-1. स्पष्ट, 2, वस्तु विनिमय करना।
(A) Notes–1. Different people produce different things
1.1. Some means of exchange needed
1.1.1. Simplest form is barter.
1.1.2. Barter can work in a very simple society
(B) Summary-The need for money is because in the society different people produce different things. This means that they depend on each other for goods and services It requires exchange system. One gives his produce to another and gets the thing he requires This is called Barter.
Title The Need for money
Education is not an end, but a means to an end. In other words, we do not educate
children only for the purpose of educating then our purpose is to make them fit for life
As soon as we realise this fact, we will understand that it is very important to choose
system of education which will really prepare children for life. It is not enough to choose
the first system of education one finds, or to continue with one’s old system of education
without examining to see whether it is suitable or not.
Difficult words-1. साधन, 2. उद्देश्य, जनबीन करना।
(A) Notes – 1. Real purpose of education is to make children fit for life.
2. Choosing a education system that prepares children for life
3. System to be chosen carefully
(B) Summary The real aim of education is that it should make children it for Education is a means not the aim, Il prepares children for life System of education the to work filialasbe chosen carefully
Title Real Education
Early rising leads to health and happiness. The man who rises late, can have keterest in the course of the day. Anyone who lies in bed late is compelledhour in the evening. He has to go without the morning exercise which is necewary lowhis health. In spite of all his efforts, his work will not produce a good results is thatthe early riser. The reason for this is that he can’t take advantage of the refreshing how
in the morning. Several great writers say that they can write best only when they born
the midnight oil. Yet, it is true that few men have a clear brain at midnight when the body
needs rest and sleep.
Difficult words-1. पथ प्रदर्शन करना, 2. मजबूर करना, 3. अनेक ।
(A) Notes-1. Advantages of early rising : 0) health, (11) happiness
2. Disadvantages of late rising :
6) little rest received during day.
(ii) work till late in the evening.
(iii) go without morning exercise.
(iv) work done improperly.
3. Burning midnight oil—bad for health.
4. Leads to bad health which has a bad effect on work
(B) Summary-Early rising leads to health and happiness. A late riser can have
neither health nor happiness. He has to work till late hours in the evening. It affects his
health and also the quality of his work. Our body needs rest at night. Those who burs
midnight oil ruin their health. And bad health has a bad effect on quality of their work
Title-Advantages of Early Rising.
According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.’
Many political scientists use the term ‘Democracy not only as a form of government, but also a kind of state. Democracy, as a kind of state means such a state in which the supreme political power rests with the people. This power is used by the people
while determining their form of government and while electing their representatives. Thus
people are the ultimate decision-makers in all political matters. In this respect democracy
is considered to be a type of state. In other words, a democratic state allow people to freely
set up their political institution. If they do not function properly and effectively they can be
changed by the people.
(A) Notes-1. Democracy not only as a form of government, but also a kind of state
1.1. Supreme political power rests with the people.
2. Power used by people determining form of governme
by elected representatives.
3. People: Ultimate decision makers.